INTRODUCTION OF MARKETING
The term marketing management describes two separate but related topics. First, it is a common name for the capstone course taken by marketing majors as they prepare to graduate. In that context, integrating management and marketing concepts to help prepare individuals for careers constitutes the primary goal. Second, marketing management is a business process. It includes managing marketing activities in profit-seeking and nonprofit organizations at the supervisory, middle-management, and executive levels. Success in these endeavors will be based on a strong knowledge of a variety of marketing functions combined with a clear understanding and application of supervisory and managerial techniques. Both of these topics may be examined and discussed using case analyses. Students and professors can learn from the case content and from each other when examining the concepts and actions taken by companies in a range of industries. This first case was chosen to accompany a review of the basic marketing management field. As the name implies, marketing management combines the fields of marketing and management. In today’s world of marketing, everywhere you go you are being marketed to in one form or another. Marketing is with you each second of your walking life. From morning to night you are exposed to thousands of marketing messages every day. Marketing is something that affects you even though you may not necessarily be conscious of it. After reading this you’ll understand – what exactly the marketing is, to whom it is beneficial, and what are the nature and scope of marketing. Definition of Marketing According to American Marketing Association (2004) – “Marketing is an organisational function and set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing relationships in a way that benefits both the organisation and the stakeholder.”
AMA (1960) – “Marketing is the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user.”
According to Eldridge (1970) – “Marketing is the combination of activities designed to produce profit through ascertaining, creating, stimulating, and satisfying the needs and/or wants of a selected segment of the market.”
According to Kotler (2000) – “A societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and freely exchanging products and services of value with others.”
Nature of Marketing
- Marketing is an Economic Function Marketing embraces all the business activities involved in getting goods and services , from the hands of producers into the hands of final consumers. The business steps through which goods progress on their way to final consumers is the concern of marketing.
- Marketing is a Legal Process by which Ownership Transfer In the process of marketing the ownership of goods transfers from seller to the purchaser or from producer to the end user.
- Marketing is a System of Interacting Business Activities Marketing is that process through which a business enterprise, institution, or organisation interacts with the customers and stakeholders with the objective to earn profit, satisfy customers, and manage relationship. It is the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user.
- Marketing is a Managerial function According to managerial or systems approach – “Marketing is the combination of activities designed to produce profit through ascertaining, creating, stimulating, and satisfying the needs and/or wants of a selected segment of the market.”According to this approach the emphasis is on how the individual organisation processes marketing and develops the strategic dimensions of marketing activities.
- Marketing is a social process Marketing is the delivery of a standard of living to society. According to Cunningham and Cunningham (1981) societal marketing performs three essential functions:-
- Knowing and understanding the consumer’s changing needs and wants;
- Efficiently and effectively managing the supply and demand of products and services; and
- Efficient provision of distribution and payment processing systems.
- Marketing is a philosophy based on consumer orientation and satisfaction 7. Marketing had dual objectives – profit making and consumer satisfaction
Scope of Marketing
- Study of Consumer Wants and Needs Goods are produced to satisfy consumer wants. Therefore study is done to identify consumer needs and wants. These needs and wants motivates consumer to purchase.
- Study of Consumer behavior Marketers performs study of consumer behaviour. Analysis of buyer behaviour helps marketer in market segmentation and targeting.
- Production planning and development Product planning and development starts with the generation of product idea and ends with the product development and commercialisation. Product planning includes everything from branding and packaging to product line expansion and contraction.
- Pricing Policies Marketer has to determine pricing policies for their products. Pricing policies differs form product to product. It depends on the level of competition, product life cycle, marketing goals and objectives, etc.
- Distribution Study of distribution channel is important in marketing. For maximum sales and profit goods are required to be distributed to the maximum consumers at minimum cost.
- Promotion Promotion includes personal selling, sales promotion, and advertising. Right promotion mix is crucial in accomplishment of marketing goals.
- Consumer Satisfaction The product or service offered must satisfy consumer. Consumer satisfaction is the major objective of marketing.
- Marketing Control Marketing audit is done to control the marketing activities.